24시출장샵
  • 영덕마사지 레전드
  • 카지노사이트
  • 수원출장안마
  • 울진거유 마사지
  • 영덕출장맛사지↺24시출장샵✑영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕체코 마사지﹞❧〔영덕목포 안마방〕⇔영덕새로운 안마방 아가씨○영덕슈얼 마사지✃영덕안마방 똥꼬╯영덕텔레그램 야동♚영덕모텔 전화

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    울산출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    영덕출장맛사지囍예약금없는출장샵☂영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕안양역 안마방﹞╁〔영덕영종도 안마방〕➷영덕나주 마사지▨영덕서양 마사지 fc2﹄영덕안마방 단속➡영덕은평구 마사지★영덕가오슝 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 순창민락동 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    영덕출장맛사지♭24시출장샵↸영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕목동 안마방﹞➹〔영덕상봉 마사지〕♞영덕마사지 야동╔영덕오일 전신 마사지⇇영덕부산 해운대 안마방┅영덕국 안마방“영덕노원 마사지 추천

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    영덕출장맛사지┱예약┮영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕안마방 여자﹞╀〔영덕호구포 마사지〕♪영덕서울 조건 만남►영덕호치민 리버티 마사지↘영덕안마방 엄마↕영덕안마방 카드사용❖영덕마사지 업소

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    영덕출장맛사지♠예약✣영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕유성 마사지﹞♠〔영덕인천 마사지〕ス영덕fc2 남친 마사지↮영덕송도 안마방➡영덕춘천 태국 마사지♔영덕영천 마사지◕영덕안중 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 익산토요 경마 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    영덕출장맛사지↨예약♫영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕마사지 효능﹞┒〔영덕마스카 안마방〕❤영덕계산택지 안마방ヘ영덕av 마사지╯영덕출장 타이 마사지┃영덕안마방 빡촌↔영덕포항 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    영덕출장맛사지영덕동대구역 여관

  • 장흥천안역 여관
  • 영덕사당역 안마방
  • 영덕출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    영덕출장맛사지•예약금없는출장샵╊영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕아비게일 마사지﹞▶〔영덕전민동 마사지〕✣영덕안성 마사지☰영덕홍방장 안마방⇪영덕광대 축소 마사지↶영덕부산 해운대 안마방♭영덕마사지 섹스

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 철원얼굴 작아지는 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 구미출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    수원출장안마
    강진중국 우한 마사지 온라인카지노 마산출장마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    영덕출장맛사지✚예약♦영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕오십견 마사지﹞➨〔영덕안마방 핸드폰〕♦영덕안마방 예약✗영덕안마방 위험☆영덕타이마사지 팁┏영덕영통 마사지♐영덕부산 출장 서비스

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 전주산남동 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    영덕출장맛사지←출장부르는법✿영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕선릉역 안마방﹞➻〔영덕진주 마사지〕♫영덕어깨통증 마사지↫영덕중국 마사지 체험기√영덕논현동 안마방○영덕강남 안마방┠영덕왕십리 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 포항출장샵 .

    속초부산대 안마방
    의령잠실 안마방 창원출장안마 익산사이판 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    영덕출장맛사지├예약큐영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕동탄 안마방﹞↽〔영덕코코넛 오일 두피 마사지〕↸영덕신천 모텔✿영덕아프리카tv 마사지η영덕안마방 신림╯영덕타이 마사지 토렌트✖영덕마사지 정보

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 광주출장샵 .

    영덕출장맛사지✈예약금없는출장샵⇄영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕안마방 체험﹞✄〔영덕구리 안마방〕★영덕무릎 마사지✍영덕창원 출장 숙소╈영덕구로디지털단지 마사지⇙영덕경락 마사지⇪영덕을지로 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 군산출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 신안안마방 장부 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    영덕출장맛사지❃24시출장샵┬영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕홈케어 마사지﹞▧〔영덕대구 모텔〕┼영덕목 마사지┠영덕안마방 알바 벌금│영덕타이 마사지 퇴폐→영덕마사지 수면실ア영덕양평 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    영덕출장맛사지┧24시출장샵┠영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕군산 모텔 가격﹞↱〔영덕출장 마사지 후기〕↱영덕출장안마┷영덕야동 마사지♔영덕구미 안마방↤영덕러시아 마사지ヒ영덕목포 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 창원문산 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 창원출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 경산초대남 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 바카라사이트 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    영덕출장맛사지⇪예약금없는출장샵▷영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕뱃살 마사지﹞╠ 〔영덕전립선 마사지 후기〕♥영덕연수동 마사지↟영덕부산마사지✎영덕출장마사지샵ク영덕제주 안마방➠영덕안마방 성병

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, swarovskiwholesalepriceonsale.top , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 대구출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    영덕출장맛사지的예약▦영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕광명 마사지﹞♞〔영덕신원동 마사지〕]영덕오산 타이 마사지┹영덕강남 전립선 마사지╤영덕블라디보스톡 마사지♤영덕안마방 에이즈⊕영덕창동 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    김해경산 사우나 마사지
    카지노사이트 진주천안 안마 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    영덕출장맛사지✃24시출장샵♀영덕실제 일본 안마방﹝영덕몰카 안마방﹞↡〔영덕덕천동 마사지〕♮영덕20대 안마방⇢영덕마사지 기계γ영덕동탄 안마방└영덕여인숙 가격➽영덕올탈 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.영덕출장맛사지영덕스포츠 마사지 후기╛영덕수지 안마방◣〔영덕서울 출장샵〕영덕안마방 bj┒영덕행신 안마방⇂영덕궐동 안마방☭영덕신도림 마사지↬천안출장안마예약금없는출장샵영덕멜라니♟영덕마사지 마무리◤﹛영덕출장샵﹜영덕예약╎영덕동대구역 여관➠영덕안양1번가 마사지♙영덕오일 전신 마사지┝영덕출장맛사지부천여성 전용 마사지 알바영덕광대 축소 마사지☺영덕출장 만남 대행↨〈영덕여성 전용 마사지 알바〉영덕광주 여관オ영덕포천 마사지↦영덕역삼역 안마방ε영덕철구 마사지╚영덕청소년 안마방┲영덕검단사거리 안마방✓『영덕오산 타이 마사지』영덕불광 여관μ영덕동래 안마방↧영덕여자 안마방»영덕춘천 마사지 후기▥영덕사이판 마사지☜영덕출장태국마사지❤{영덕50m}영덕안마방 카드결제▷영덕마사지 단속 시간⇩영덕조루 안마방∴영덕평택 여관♨영덕안마방 발기◈영덕오사카 안마방┞﹛영덕몰카 안마방﹜영덕서울 안마방 위치┳영덕화곡동 안마방サ영덕사우나 마사지»영덕안마방 여자☺예약횡성당진 안마방예약금없는출장샵영덕태국 마사지 가격➢영덕동두천 마사지♯【영덕명동 마사지】영덕안마방 장부➶영덕이하루 마사지§영덕부산 모텔 아가씨☼영덕마사지 모음♩영덕출장맛사지영덕출장맛사지부산출장안마영덕남성전용마사지영덕구미 아로마 마사지영덕출장 사기영덕안마방 모텔영덕출장맛사지영덕탑 클래스♣영덕안마방 오픈시간┵‹영덕칠곡 마사지›영덕안마방 무한샷♐영덕안마방 전화┗영덕19금 마사지“영덕김무열 마사지✕창원클럭 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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